We are witnessing a resurgence of Indigenous knowledge and growing acknowledgement of its scientific value worldwide.
This article has been republished from The Conversation under Creative Commons licence CC BY-ND 4.0 and is written by Te Kahuratai Moko-Painting, Co-Director – Centre for Pūtaiao, University of Auckland and Dr Tara McAllister, Research Fellow, Te Herenga Waka — Victoria University of Wellington. It was originally titled: Indigenous knowledge is increasingly valued, but to fully respect it we need to decolonise science – here’s how.
In Aotearoa, there’s been some progress, including the introduction of a public holiday to mark Matariki, the beginning of a new year in maramataka – the Māori calendar based on the phases of the Moon, the movement of stars and the timing of ecological changes.
But progress has not been straightforward, with some scientists publicly questioning the scientific value of mātauranga.
At the same time, Māori scientists have drawn on and advanced mātauranga and continue to make space for te reo, tikanga and honouring Te Tiriti o Waitangi in research.
Our recent publication explores pūtaiao – a way of conducting research grounded in kaupapa Māori.
In education, pūtaiao is often simplified to mean science taught in Māori-medium schools that includes mātauranga, or science taught in te reo more broadly. But science based on kaupapa Māori is generally by Māori, for Māori and with Māori.
Our research extends kaupapa Māori and the important work of pūtaiao in schools into tertiary scientific research. We envision pūtaiao as a way of doing science that is led by Māori and firmly positioned in te ao Māori (including mātauranga, te reo and tikanga).
Pūtaiao as decolonising science
Pūtaiao privileges Māori ways of knowing, being and doing. It is a political speaking back for the inclusion of te ao Māori – mātauranga, te reo, tikanga and Te Tiriti o Waitangi – in science.
Conducting research this way is not new. Many Māori scientists have drawn on mātauranga and kaupapa Māori in their research for decades. Our conceptualisation of pūtaiao is an affirmation of the work of Māori scientists and a pathway for redefining and transforming scientific research for future generations.
Decolonising science is at the heart of pūtaiao. It challenges and critiques the academy and disciplines of Western science. Decolonising science requires a focus on histories, structures and institutions that act as barriers to mātauranga, te reo and tikanga.
We argue that decolonising science is a necessary step before we can Indigenise science.
Like mātauranga, pūtaiao is embedded in place and in the people of those places. It centres, prioritises and affirms Māori identity in the context of scientific research and science identity.
The importance of the researcher in pūtaiao
How we identify as Māori – tangata whenua or rāwaho (people not related to the hapū or whānau), ahi kā (people who keep the home fires burning) or ahi mātaotao (people who may have been disconnected to the land through lack of occupation over generations) – fundamentally changes how we interact with people and place through research.
To practise pūtaiao effectively, researchers are required to understand who they are and how that informs the research questions asked, the research relationships formed, the location of the research and the way research is conducted.
Kaupapa Māori, as articulated by distinguished education scholar Graham Hingangaroa Smith, requires two approaches to decolonisation: structuralist and culturalist.
Culturalist approaches centre te reo, mātauranga and tikanga. The groundbreaking work led by professor of marine science and aquaculture Kura Paul-Burke, using mātauranga to enhance shellfish restoration, is an excellent example of a culturalist approach to decolonising science.
A structuralist approach means paying attention to and dismantling the structures within science which continue to exclude Māori knowledge and people. It encourages us to think about the colonial roots of science and how science has been used to justify colonial violence and oppression of Māori.
Captain Cook’s “scientific voyage” to Aotearoa is a great example of how colonisation occurred under the guise of science.
“We have been hoarding stories about Cook for 250 years now,” writes Alice Te Punga Somerville @alice_tps “Some of those stories are valuable, important, useful. Most of them are junk.”https://t.co/n7VWTyGCXf— e-Tangata (@etangata) November 21, 2020
Challenging the status quo
Pūtaiao reframes the conversation around the inclusion of mātauranga Māori in science. It considers the relationship between te ao Māori, the researcher and science to imagine how to decolonise, Indigenise and transform science.
We understand science not simply as scientific knowledge but as a knowledge system that spans research, education, academia, scientific practice and publications, as well as the evaluation and funding and access to science, its legitimacy and its relationship to policy and government.
There has been much research on Māori experiences within the science system, including the cultural double shift when Māori scientists are expected to lift their colleagues’ understanding, racism and the difficulties of inclusion. A lone Māori scientist is often tasked with upskilling their colleagues, representing Māori on committees and leading cultural practices in addition to standard loads of supervising, teaching and research.
“You want us to publish in Nature, get a high PBRF grade and help everyone else “Māorify” their funding applications. We want to do research that is driven by mana whenua aspirations.” — Dr Tara McAllister @taramcallister4 https://t.co/EKIp5MGLw8— e-Tangata (@etangata) May 27, 2023
To challenge the status quo, we explored different ways of creating ecosystems or “flourishing forests” of Māori scientists to advance pūtaiao. This includes creating networks of Māori staff in science by establishing research centres such as Te Pūtahi o Pūtaiao and the Centre of Indigenous Science.
It also means creating research projects that move beyond the siloed disciplines within the science system. In this way, pūtaiao enables Māori to see themselves and be seen within science.
Pūtaiao offers a practical foundation, connecting Māori science leaders to transform science. Whether this happens through new university courses, academic programmes, research centres, institutions or regional and community hubs remains to be seen.
It is certain, however, that pūtaiao, conceptualised as kaupapa Māori science, offers many pathways for Māori scientists to continue to draw on and advance more than mātauranga to decolonise and, ultimately, redefine science into the future.
Discover more about the Awhi Mai Awhi Atu restoration project, led by Professor Kura Paul-Burke, that is combining multiple aspects of mātauranga.
Project Mātauranga is a television series that investigates Māori world views and methodologies within the scientific community.
For an introduction to mātauranga Māori and science, read this article. It includes links to numerous related resources and some great useful links.
Discover more by exploring our mātauranga Māori topic, we have webinars, activities and much more covering a wide range of topics.
To explore different aspects of research utilising science and mātauranga Māori, have a look at our Pinterest curation of resources here.
Find out more about some of the research and articles mentioned in this article:
Learn more about Matariki and how it became an official public holiday on the New Zealand Parliament Pāremata Aotearoa website.
Read how some University academics' claim mātauranga Māori 'not science' sparks controversy on the Radio NZ website.
Moko-Painting, T.K., Hamley, L., Hikuroa, D., Le Grice, J., McAllister, T, et al. (2023). (Re)emergence of Pūtaiao: Conceptualising Kaupapa Māori science. Environment and Planning F, 2(1–2), 11–37. https://doi.org/10.1177/26349825231164617.
Smith, Graham Hingangaroa. Beyond Political Literacy: From Conscientization to Transformative Praxis. Counterpoints, Vol. 275, 2005, pp. 29–42. JSTOR, https://www.jstor.org/stable/42978775.
Professor Kura Paul-Burke's profile on the The University of Waikato Te Whare Wānanga o Waikato website.
Dana E. Clark, Joanne Clapcott, Eleanor Gee, Andrew Lohrer, Kura Paul-Burke, Clive Howard-Williams. (2022) Transcending boundaries: transitioning toward integrated estuary management in Aotearoa New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 56:3, pages 303-311.
Melissa Nobles, Chad Womack, Ambroise Wonkam & Elizabeth Wathuti. Ending racism is key to better science: a message from Nature’s guest editors. Nature 610, 419-420 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-03247-w.
Read this rejection of the Defence of colonial racism on Tina Ngata’s blog website.
Haar, J., & Martin, W. J. (2022). He aronga takirua: Cultural double-shift of Māori scientists. Human Relations, 75(6), 1001–1027. https://doi.org/10.1177/00187267211003955
McAllister T., Naepi S., Walker L., Gillon A., Clark, P., Lambert E., et al. (2022) Seen but unheard: navigating turbulent waters as Māori and Pacific postgraduate students in STEM, Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 52:sup1, 116-134, DOI: 10.1080/03036758.2022.2097710.
Te Kawehau Hoskins and Alison Jones. (2022). Indigenous Inclusion and Indigenising the University. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies. Vol 57, 305–320. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40841-022-00264-1.
Read these related The Conversation articles:
- Indigenous knowledge offers solutions, but its use must be based on meaningful collaboration with Indigenous communities
- Racism, exclusion and tokenism: how Māori and Pacific science graduates are still marginalised at university
- Building bridges between scientific and Indigenous knowledge
The research mentioned in the tweets:
- (Not quite) 250 ways to start an essay about Captain Cook, by Alice Te Punga Somerville, on E-Tangata.
- 50 reasons there are no Māori in your science department, by Tara McAllister, on E-Tangata.
Watch this Mātauranga Māori in Education, Education Hub webinar recording with Dr Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal (Marutūahu, Ngāti Raukawa, Ngā Puhi) from 2023.
Evidence supports the teaching of Indigenous knowledge alongside sciences in the classroom, read more in Amanda Black, Jason M. Tylianakis, Teach Indigenous knowledge alongside science. Science 383, 592–594 (2024). DOI:10.1126/science.adi9606
This article was written by Te Kahuratai Moko-Painting, Co-Director – Centre for Pūtaiao, University of Auckland and Dr Tara McAllister, Research Fellow, Te Herenga Waka — Victoria University of Wellington. The article was originally published in The Conversation, 15 June 2022. Read the original article.