Scientists have a new tool in their kit for counting populations of penguins in Antarctica. An international team has published a paper about using very high-resolution satellite imagery for the job. Their study has revealed that there are twice as many emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) in Antarctica than was previously thought.
When looking down at things on Earth from space, even with the best satellite images, it can be hard to tell the difference between a penguin, a dark ice shadow or even a pile of penguin poo. To get around the problem, the scientists used a technique called pan-sharpening to further increase the resolution of the satellite imagery – and where they were able to, they calibrated the analysis using ground counts and aerial photography.
Estimating penguin numbers has always been tricky. They often breed in remote and inaccessible areas with temperatures as low as -50 °C. They also like to huddle together to stay warm.
Estimates of emperor penguin numbers doubled
However, in this first comprehensive census taken from space, scientists were able to count over half a million emperor penguins. “We are delighted to be able to locate and identify such a large number of emperor penguins. We counted 595,000 birds, which is almost double the previous estimates of 270,000–350,000 birds,” says lead author and geographer Peter Fretwell at British Antarctic Survey (BAS).
This team analysed 46 emperor penguin colonies around the coast of Antarctica – seven of these colonies were either completely unknown (four) or had been suspected but not confirmed (three).
Efficient research with little environmental impact
Co-author of the research Dr Michelle LaRue from the University of Minnesota Polar Geospatial Centre says using remote sensing (satellite imagery) is an enormous step forward in Antarctic ecology,
because we can conduct research safely and efficiently with little environmental impact and determine estimates of an entire penguin populationDr Michelle LaRue
The method is also cost effective and can be applied to other poorly understood Antarctic species to strengthen on-going field research and to provide accurate information for international conservation efforts.
In their paper, published in the 13 April 2012 issue of PLoS ONE, the researchers write that getting an accurate tally of emperor penguin numbers now is crucial as it provides a baseline with which to measure any impact of climate change on the population. “…recent research indicates that numbers may decrease significantly in coming decades. These studies have highlighted the susceptibility of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice distribution. Recent recorded changes in sea ice are substantial and predictions suggest sea ice variation will increase with predicted climate change. The subsequent change in marine food webs and other possible developments linked to climate change such as increased predation, increased competition and an increasing frequency of storm events is likely to impact on their breeding success and colony viability…”
Comparison with ground counts
In a 2012 press release from the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD), the Division reports that AAD biologist Dr Barbara Wienecke undertook ground counts of penguin colonies at three sites in east Antarctica to compare them with the numbers derived from the satellite imagery.
Dr Wienecke reports that, despite the unexpectedly large number of penguins counted, she notes that some of the known colonies have been impacted on in recent years.
“The populations of two large colonies have already significantly decreased in size, and one small one has all but disappeared and others are beginning to show signs of change. We think that earlier spring warming is leading to loss of sea ice habitat for emperor penguins, making the northerly colonies more vulnerable to further climate change.”
The research is a collaboration between British Antarctic Survey, University of Minnesota/National Science Foundation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Australian Antarctic Division.
Antarctica and citizen science
The Penguin Watch citizen science project has been set up to help scientists establish valuable baseline data about the numbers, locations, habits and health of penguins in a range of Southern Ocean sites.
Crabeater seals live in the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica and are thought to be one of the most abundant mammals on Earth – but is this really true? Help Dr Michelle LaRue and her team find out with the citizen science project Crabeater Seals – Tomnod. Dr LaRue is now based at Gateway Antarctica at the University of Canterbury.
Weddell Seals – Zooniverse asks citizen scientists to help analyse images for information about changes in seal population numbers. This work could give important insights into the health and functioning of the Antarctica ecosystem.
MAPPPD (Mapping Application for Penguin Populations and Projected Dynamics) is an international collaboration of Antarctic researchers collecting data to study how the fragile polar ecosystem is changing through time. Contribute to this citizen science project and become a penguin detective and help build and maintain the database.
Your students may like to refer to the articles, Researching in Anarctica and Collecting data in Antarctica about research in Antarctica and then consider how the new research tool described in this article is changing the way scientists do research in Antarctica.
Learn more about penguins. Discover more about the Antarctic ecosystems in Antarctic life and ecosystems, Antarctic marine ecosystem, Antarctic terrestrial ecosystem and in the blogs from the 2008 IPY Voyage, Research voyage to Antarctica – introduction.
Practise matching up satellite images with on-the-ground observations in the simple activity Validating remote sensing observations.
Check out our collection of great articles and resources on penguins on Pinterest.